Category:Administration

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Definition

Public Administrations are professional, rule-governed, and hierarchical organizations and are a central part of the executive branch of a state. They are responsible for the neutral implementation of government policies and the execution of public tasks set by rules and laws that were adopted by the representative bodies. However, public administrations also contribute to the development of new policies and are closely linked to the democratic process. At the local level public administrations are referred to as "municipalities" that secure their functioning through stable structures and a professional body of civil servants. They are often the organizations that implement and conduct participation processes (Czerwick/Lorig/Treutner 2009; Peters 2010; Richter 2012).


Theories and Results

Public Administration Reforms

Legalistic-bureaucratic ideal-type of European public administrations is becoming increasingly challenged by multiple co-existing reform approaches (Emery/Giauque 2014) that can be associated with different administrative paradigms and (institutional) logics:

  • New public management reforms emphasize managerial and market oriented values like performance, market/client orientation, or efficiency (Meyer et al. 2014)
  • Refocusing the democratic role and values of public administrations (e.g., equal rights to participate, deliberation) has led to an increased discussion about the engagement of citizens into public decision-making processes (e.g., Denhardt/Denhardt 2015).
  • Besides democratic participation and decision-making, networks and co-production - networking with all societal stakeholders in the production of public services and finding solutions for societal ('wicked') problems - are another focus of reform efforts. They emphasize the values of for example innovativeness, agility, or community that might be enabled through new practices like crowdsourcing (Cristofoli et al. 2017).

The complex interplay of these different demands, expectations, and values certainly influences how public administrations and its members interpret and deal with new technologies (Rose et al. 2015) and online-participation in particular.

Public Administration and IT

Online-Participation and local administrations

  • Diffusion of Online-Participation among municipalities
    • The adoption of certain tools and practices that facilitate different stages of online-participation like information, consultation, and co-decision-making/interactive participation has been a prominent approach to analyze online-participation at the local level (e.g.,Scott 2006; Medaglia 2007; Carrizales 2008; Sandoval-Almazan/Gil-Garcia, 2012; Norris/Reddick 2013; Royo/Yetano/Acerete 2014; Yavuz/Welch 2014). Related studies look at the use and implementation of social media in local administrations that hold the potential for interaction and participation of citizens (Bonson et al. 2012; Ellison/Hardy 2014). These types of studies often also test how different factors are statistically related to the adoption or implementation of e-participation. Such influencing factors are amongst others:
      • Internal (meso) factors like the size and resources of a public administration (e.g., city size a proxy), type of public organization, or managerial and technical capabilities.
      • Environmental (macro) factors like population characteristics (e.g., voter turnout as a proxy for political participation), technological development (e.g., broadband supply of households) or the national administrative culture.
    • Surprisingly, analyses of the specific institutional context of public administration organizations have been very limited (e.g., Chadwick 2011). See also McNutt's (2014) discussion of how reform paradigms and web 2.0 possibilities interact with regard to online-participation.
  • The design of administrative Online-Participation processes is another prominent area of research (e.g., Paganelli/Pechi 2013; Sivaraja et al. 2016)

Subcategories

This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.

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Pages in category "Administration"

The following 43 pages are in this category, out of 43 total.