Fountain, Jane E. (2009): Bureaucratic reform and e-government in the United States
Fountain, Jane E. (2009): Bureaucratic reform and e-government in the United States. An institutional perspective. in: Andrew Chadwick und Philip N. Howard (Hg.): Routledge handbook of Internet politics. London, New York (2009) (Routledge International Handbooks), S. 99–113. Online at: http://people.umass.edu/jfountai/files/JF_HIP.pdf
Fountain uses institutional theory to analyze e-government reforms and developments in the U.S. on state and local level. She refers to institutions as "regularized patterns and processes that simplify and order cognition and behavior at the individual, group, organizational and societal level of analysis" (p. 100). Institutions can be formal (e.g. macro level legislation or regulation) or informal (micro level trust or networks). Both forms can influence each other. She places organizations in the middle of the process of ICT enactment. Fountain analyzes state organizations and traces how the Weberian bureaucracies in the U.S. with its relatively "stable practices and traditions" (p. 101) cope with technological innovations.