The Framework

From Online-Partizipation
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Review needed!

- possibly outdated

This Wiki contains a comprehensive collection of scientific work on the topic of Online-Participation. It uses a two dimensional hierarchy of categories to structure its pages.

  1. issue - categories describing a key research issue pertaining to Online-Participation (work in progress, add/change as necessary)
    1. Category:Participation - with [[Category:Participation]] Why and how do participants take part in Online Participation?
      1. Category:Motivation - with [[Category:Motivation]] referring to all content for motivating engaging in participation
    2. Category:Evaluation - with [[Category:Evaluation]] What are the criteria for success in Online-Participation? How can they be measured? What are the factors that influence those criteria? How are the criteria influenced by the factors?
      1. Analytical Criteria - with [[Category:Analytical Criteria]]
        1. Category:Quality - with [[Category:Quality]] referring to what is the substantive quality
        2. Category:Legitimacy - with [[Category:Legitimacy]] referring to acceptance (of process or result)
        3. Category:Participation - with [[Category:Participation]] referring to how many participate
        4. Category:Inclusion - with [[Category:Inclusion]] referring to who participates
        5. Category:Influence - with [[Category:Influence]] referring to whether the process influences decision-making
        6. Category:Attitudes - with [[Category:Attitudes]] referring to acquiring democratic values or changing someone's opinion through the participation
        7. Category:Skills - with [[Category:Skills]] referring to the learning of skills (through participation)
        8. Category:Efficiency - with [[Category:Efficiency]] referring to the efficiency of the process
      2. Factors - with [[Category:Factors]]
        1. Category:Deliberation - with [[Category:Deliberation]] referring to deliberative discussions
        2. Category:Offline Component - with [[Category:Offline Component]] referring to utilization of offline channels
        3. Category:Issue - with [[Category:Issue]] referring to content concerning the issue of the participation
        4. Category:Reputation - with [[Category:Reputation]] referring to use of reputation mechanisms
        5. Category:Preference Aggregation - with [[Category:Preference Aggregation]] referring to all content on voting etc.
        6. Category:Motivation - with [[Category:Motivation]] referring to all content for motivating engaging in participation
        7. Category:Social Structure - with [[Category:Social Structure]] referring to the social setting of the participation process
        8. Category:Anonymity - with [[Category:Anonymity]] referring to all issues relating to what degree participants are identifiable
        9. Category:Group Size - with [[Category:Group Size]] referring to all issues relating to the influence of the size of the target group / group that participates
        10. Category:Group Behaviour - with [[Category:Group Behaviour]] referring to all issues in relation to how other members of a group behave vice versa an indidivual that participates
        11. Category:Commitment - with [[Category:Commitment]] referring to all issues relating to the commitment of an individual to a group or her liking of the group
        12. Category:Uniqueness - with [[Category:Uniqueness]] referring to all issues relating to participants thought of their uniqueness / unique characteristic
        13. Category:Needed contributions - with [[Category:Needed contributions]] referring to list of needed contributions and its effects, further to tools of finding/tracking work needs to be done
        14. Category:Appeal - with [[Category:Appeal]] referring to use of appeals and how to make requests work
        15. Category:Process Structure - with [[Category:Process Structure]] referring to how the participation/interaction is structured, e.g. simultanously or sequentially
    3. Category:Deliberation - with [[Category:Deliberation]] How do/should participants interact during Online-Participation?
      1. Category:Forum - with [[Category:Forum]] Interaction via a forum.
      2. Category:Discussion - with [[Category:Discussion]] Interaction via discussion (different compared to a forum).
      3. Category:Pro- and Contra-based Systems - with [[Category:Pro- and Contra-based Systems]] Interaction via pro/contra lists.
      4. Category:Argumentation Map - with [[Category:ArgumentationMap]] Interaction using argumentation maps.
      5. Category:InteractionArgumentation - with [[Category:InteractionArgumentation]] Interaction using an interactive argumentation system.
      6. Category:Text Analysis - with [[Category:Text Analysis]] Analyzing text-based user input
      7. Category:Argument Mining - with [[Category:Argument Mining]] Analyzing argument structures in user input
      8. Category:Dialog-based_Online_Argumentation - with [[Category:Dialog-based_Online_Argumentation]] Everything about/with dialog-based online argumentation.
    4. Category:Organization - with [[Category:Organization]] How should the specifics of a given organization be taken into account for Online Participation? What effect does Online-Participation have on the organization itself?
  2. type - categories identifying the type of information contained in the page
    1. Theories - with [[Category:Theories]]
      1. Definitions - with [[Category:Definitions]] pages that cover/contain a definition of a concept
    2. Relations - with [[Category:Cause-Effect-Relationsships]]
      1. Hypothesis - with [[Category:Hypothesis]] for relations one is not yet sure about
    3. References - with [[Category:References]]
      1. Studies - with [[Category:Studies]] for articles, etc
      2. Systems - with [[Category:Systems]] tools and systems
      3. Cases - with [[Category:Cases]] for descriptions of particular applications of online participation (e.g. a participatory budgeting in a local council or the petitions website of a parliament)

Here we describe how the content of this Wiki is (i.e. should be) organized. work in progess

(You can see all existing categories here: Special:Categories - and a list of all category pages: Special:Allpages/Category:)

further alternatives

Success criteria are any criteria (that can me measured) that if these are fulfilled might constitute the success of a participation project.

Success factors are any factors which impact on the success criteria.

The rationale is for example explained by Geissel 2012:167: "criteria for the evaluation of success and prerequisites for success are often confused [...]. It is fundamental to distinguish between impacts (or success, in most studies) and prerequisites for success."

success criteria

  • participation - how many participate
  • inclusion - who participates
  • quality - what is the substantive quality
  • legitimacy - is it legal, is it accepted?
  • influence - mainly on decision making
  • attitudes - e.g. acquiring democratic values or changing someone's opinion
  • skills - e.g. learning of skills
  • efficiency


  1. There is not one goal but there exist multiple goals. While there is (should be) a finite set of criteria, which of those apply to a particular participation project in order to be counted as a success needs to be postulated. This will depend on context and perspective of the evaluation.
  2. These criteria might apply to the results of the participation process and/or the participation process itself. For example, a process might be legitimate, or the result that it yields might be legitimate. Usually the former will be a necessary but not sufficient condition for the latter.
  3. Different success criteria can might rely on each other (e.g. you might need an inclusive participation in order to achieve legitimacy) while others might exclude each other (e.g. to ensure the quality of the result or the efficiency of the process, large numbers of participants might be counterproductive).

success factors

Following previous research (Rowe & Frewer 2000b; Pratchet et al. 2009; Beierle & Cayford 2002), we apply a basic distinction between factors that refer to the way a participation process is organised – what we call design – and the context in which the process takes place. While the design elements can be shaped directly by the initiators, the context factors are more or less stable and might only be changed indirectly and in the long run. In other words, the design elements are part of the participation process while the context elements are mostly independent from it.

Below is an early draft of what the factors could be and how these might be structure, based on work by Ulf Tranow, Katharina Hanel and Tobiesch (talk) . More work needed but I would suggest to make it much simpler to start with.